A dissertation is a document or long essay on a particular subject based on findings and research of original author and is submitted for an academic degree or diploma. A dissertation will show that the researcher knows well about the subjects, key facts and findings in it, but also advancing his views from the original research. All dissertations vary in style, format and design. A typical format guide would require the dissertation to be processed in a word with double and one-and-a-half spacing, and a wide left margin to enable binding. The aims of the dissertation are to:
- Put all theories and practice learned by researchers in practical mode
- Give opportunity to study topic in depth
- Show evidence related to independent investigations
- Enable interactions with topic searching
- Combine all relevant theories and search for alternatives
- Enable the researchers to manage and complete the project withing given time-period
The first section includes a title page containing the name of a particular subject on which research is being conducted. Then there is a table of contents which includes all terms required for completion of a dissertation. Furthermore, there would be a list of table and diagrams and a list of abbreviations used in alphabetical order.
The first chapter of the second section includes an introduction. This is a first part which is completed at last. It provides importance to the research and tells what researcher is trying to convey from this topic. It also indicates how this research will contribute to the theoretical understanding of the topic. It comprises a clear statement of aims and objectives of the research. It also includes hypothesis, research questions; which are to be investigated and summary and main arguments in the dissertation help.
The second chapter incorporates literature review which comes immediately after the introduction and is always written in sections. It must be well structured, and ideas of the researcher should flow logically from one point to another in this chapter. It includes previous work done on the subject and anything relevant to the hypothesis and research questions. It interprets major issues surrounding the topic and identifies new ways to shed lights on any gaps which were found in previous research. It also incorporates a large number of references to the literature in the chosen area.
Third chapter cover research methodology which describes the account of research questions and hypothesis to be investigated and an argument for why these methods according to the researcher; are the most appropriate ones for the question. It comprises research philosophy, research design, research types, research approach and data collection methods. It should consider the benefits of the chosen method, as well as, identifying any disadvantages related to the subject and how to overcome them. Ethical issues related to the subject should be noted. This section should also discuss other things from the original fieldwork plan and should conclude with a reflection on the experience of doing fieldwork.
Data Analysis and Findings
The fourth chapter involves data analysis and findings. It consists of the data that has been collected as a part of the research and the researcher’s analysis of the data. This section should represent the main finding of the research with an account of the strength and weakness of the data related to the topic. The analysis should be in an appropriate format and detailed enough to support the researcher’s point of view. The data analysis includes overview which contains in brief about the purpose of the study and how the research was conducted, a detailed description of each research questions and hypothesis. Actual data collection consists using various mathematical, statistical and qualitative analysis performed on the data. In addition to this, a conclusion is written giving an insight about what researcher have drawn from the analysis. This is an important part of the literature review, so the data used here should be relevant, the analysis should be done using appropriate methods, data should be thorough enough in mentioning strength, as well as, limitation of the related topic. Finally, a summary paragraph will provide a brief review of the chapter.
The fifth chapter comprises discussion which links findings together to the literature presented in the literature review. There are arguments but are included only in exceptional circumstances. The discussion should be precisely raised different voices of interest in the research question and to explore the findings in the light of the literature and different perspectives within it. It is a three-way conversation between literature discussed, a methodology which is adopted and finding presented by the researcher.
Conclusion and Recommendation
The sixth chapter is composed of conclusion and recommendation which are an overall assessment of findings of the researcher and how much successful he was in giving a suggestion for future research. It offers an opportunity to review the work of the researcher as a whole and develop a clear and precise understanding of a way of dealing the topic. It is also an appropriate place to mention limitations related to the research and to indicate possible opportunities for researchers to address the issues in the near future.
Last part is a summary section which provides a concise synopsis of the research and gives a good reason for continuing the reading. It should be written at the beginning after going through all sections of the literature review. The first sentence of the summary should include research gap in current research that the researcher aims to correct in the research only. The second sentence should recap dissertation’s thesis statement by using precise and clear language so that the reader might become familiar with the given topic. The remaining two to three sentence should summarize objective of the research, as well as, significant outcomes or contributions the dissertation offers to the given subject.